Also called an olfactory neuroblastoma, the esthesioneuroblastoma is a tumor of the upper nasal cavity. In some cases the tumors are low-grade and can be treated successfully with surgery alone. In other cases the tumors are high grade and require radiation and sometimes chemotherapy. Recurrence rate for low grade tumors treated aggressively is quite low, where for higher grade tumors, recurrence within 5 years is greater than 50%.
Papilloma, of which inverted papilloma is one subtype, is a benign tumor of the nasal mucosa. There is a more malignant form, but this is rare. The papilloma can also invade locally into adjacent tissue and must be removed completely for surgical cure. Papillomas are often associated with sinusitis and chronic sinus infections, but the infection is generally the results of, rather than the cause of, the papilloma. Papilloma may also be associated with a virus called the “Human Papilloma Virus”.
Osteomas are the most common benign tumors of the nose and sinuses arising from the bone. These tumors are very slow growing but can cause symptoms by pushing on adjacent structures or obstructing the nasal passages. Symptoms often include facial pain and headaches. The treatment of choice is surgery and complete removal is usually curative.